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Tuesday, 22 April 2014

Completely wrong Bitcoin statements

Completely wrong Bitcoin statements

It is completely wrong for The Economist to state that Chronic deflation may keep Bitcoin from displacing its fiat rivals.


Deflation is impossible in Bitcoin. It is impossible in a non-monetary item. A bitcoin is a variable real value non-monetary item. 


Deflation is a sustained decrease in the general price level over time.


Deflation means the real value of a monetary item increases while its nominal value stays the same over time as  a result of a fall in the general price level. 


A monetary item can only be affected by inflation when its real value decreases as a result of a sustained increase in the general price level over time. The nominal value of the monetary item (US Dollar, Euro, Yuan, Yen, etc.) stays the same over time.


All statements linking Bitcoin to inflation or deflation are completely wrong.


Nicolaas Smith Copyright (c) 2005-2014 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.

Thursday, 17 April 2014

IASB agrees with silly idea that capital maintenance is only required during high inflation

IASB still clueless about capital maintenance

The IASB now officially agrees with the silly idea that capital maintenance is only required with the onset of high inflation.

After an analysis of the replies to the Discussion Paper: A Review of the Conceptual Framework, the IASB now officially agrees with the silly idea that capital maintenance is only required with the onset of high inflation. 

15 (c) Capital maintenance – Most respondents agreed with the proposal in the Discussion Paper to leave the existing descriptions and the discussion of capital maintenance concepts in the Conceptual Framework largely unchanged until such time as work on accounting for high inflation indicates a need for a change. Consequently, we do not propose to discuss capital maintenance with you unless work on the measurement section of the Exposure Draft highlights a need to discuss the issue further. 

The IASB simply ignores the statement by the Australian accounting authorities that there is a lack of understanding at the IASB regarding the importance of capital maintenance in the accounting framework. 

The IASB also ignores the statement by The European Accounting Association that "Capital maintenance is a competing objective of financial reporting" in their comment to the above Discussion Paper. 

The ignorance of the functioning of capital maintenance in units of constant purchasing power in terms of a DAILY INDEX at the IASB is shocking especially when it is taken into account that by simply making a very small change to IAS 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies and requiring DAILY indexing instead of applying the monthly published CPI would stabilize the non-monetary economies in hyerinflationary economies in Venezuela and Belarus over a very short time. 

The IASB has absolutely no understanding of what is written in the previous paragraph although I have been trying to explain it to them since January 2012 in IFRS ´X` CAPITAL MAINTENANCE IN UNITS OF CONSTANT PURCHASING POWER.

The IASB is absolutely clueless about the effects of daily indexing on capital maintenance.

I can see why the US Securities and Exchange Commission refuses to agree to the adoption of IFRS in the US economy. The IASB is very intransigent to the detriment of the world economy.

Nicolaas Smith 

Copyright (c) 2005-2014 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.

Difference between inflation and the stable measuring unit assumption

Difference between inflation and the stable measuring unit assumption

Almost no-one understands the difference between the inflation and the stable measuring unit assumption.

DEFINITION

Inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level over time.  

Inflation results in a decrease in the real value of ONLY money and other monetary items over time. Inflation has NO effect on the real value of non-monetary items over time. Inflation can only affect the real value of monetary items - nothing else. 

DEFINITION

Monetary items constitute the money supply.

DEFINITION

Non-monetary items are all items that are not monetary items.

DEFINITION

The stable measuring unit assumption is the ASSUMPTION made by ONLY historical cost accountants that changes in the purchasing power of money are not sufficiently important to require: 

(i) inflation-indexing all monetary items in terms of all changes in the general price level, that is to say, at least daily and 

(2) the measurement of all constant real value non-monetary items in units of constant purchasing power in terms of all changes in the general price level, that is to say, at least daily.  

SUMMARY

Under the stable measuring unit assumption it is ASSUMED  that money is
PERFECTLY STABLE over time at ALL levels of inflation and deflation.

The ASSUMPTION that money is PERFECTLY STABLE over time at ALL levels of inflation and deflation is obviously completely wrong.

So, what is the difference between inflation and the stable measuring unit assumption? 

The difference is that inflation only erodes the real value of monetary items over time and that the constant purchasing power (real value) of constant real value non-monetary items is eroded, not by inflation, but by the stable monetary unit assumption over time during inflation.

Thus, the real value of monetary items is eroded by inflation while the real value of constant real value non-monetary items is eroded by the stable measuring unit assumption, i.e., by the use of the traditional Historical Cost Accounting model. 

Most accountants and economists (as well as people in general) mistakenly believe that inflation erodes the real value of companies´ capital and retained profits while it is actually an impossibility: inflation can only affect the real value of monetary items - nothing else. Inflation has no effect on the real value of non-monetary items. The real value of constant real value non-monetary items is eroded by the use of the stable measuring unit assumption, i.e., by the use of the traditional Historical Cost Accounting model. 

Nicolaas Smith 

Copyright (c) 2005-2014 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.

Wednesday, 16 April 2014

HCA is like shooting yourself in both feet

HCA is like shooting yourself in both feet

Under Historical Cost Accounting you apply the stable measuring unit assumption. That´s a double whammy to the maintenance of real value: (a) you do not maintain the real value of monetary items and (b) you do not maintain the real value of constant real value non-monetary items during inflation and deflation as follows:

1. With monetary items you assume money is perfectly stable and you DO NOT inflation-index all monetary items daily 

and

2. With constant real value non-monetary items you apply the stable measuring unit assumption and you DO NOT measure constant real value non-monetary items in units of constant purchasing power in terms of all changes in the general price level, that is: at least daily. 

There´s you double whammy to real value under HCA.

Under Capital Maintenance in Units of Constant Purchasing Power (CMUCPP) in terms of the Daily CPI you would:

A Maintain the real value of all monetary items by inflation-indexing them daily 

and 

B Maintain the constant purchasing power (real value) of all constant real value non-monetary items constant by measuring them in units of constant purchasing power in terms of the Daily CPI. 

Nicolaas Smith 

Copyright (c) 2005-2014 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.

Friday, 11 April 2014

What backs the US Dollar?

The US Dollar is backed by all the underlying value systems in the US economy.

The underlying values systems in the US economy include, but are not limited to:

Sound governance
Sound economic policies
Sound education system
Sound justice system
Sound health system
Sound defense system
Sound police system
Sound commerce and industry
Sound infra-structure system
Sound monetary policies
Sound accounting principles
Etc, etc.

The same is true for every other fiat currency. They are backed by all the specific underlying values systems in each economy.

Nicolaas Smith 

Copyright (c) 2005-2014 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.

Friday, 4 April 2014

Quantitative easing

Quantitative easing is the creation of new money by the central bank in the form of loans to commercial banks that does not result in an increase in inflation. A central bank increases commercial banks´ reserves with the central bank by means of valid loans that have to be paid back by the commercial banks. The commercial banks, having more reserves with the central bank, then increase loans to businesses and consumers which boost economic activity in a non-inflationary way.

Nicolaas Smith 

 Copyright (c) 2005-2014 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.

Thursday, 3 April 2014

Bitcoin is not money like your local currency

Bitcoin is not money like your local currency

There are three basic economic items in the economy:

1. Monetary items, e.g., bank notes and coins, money loans and all other items in the money supply.

2. Variable real value non-monetary items, e.g., property, plant, equipment, inventory, stocks, shares, patents, stamps, gold, etc. 

3. Constant real value non-monetary items, e.g., salaries, wages, rents, interest, capital, profits, losses, all items in shareholders equity, all items in the profit and loss account, accounts receivable, accounts payable, etc. 

Where do bitcoins fit in?

They are not constant real value non-monetary items. Their real values change daily. 

Are they monetary items? Let´s see: are they the same as money?

For any item to be money it has to have all three of the functions of money:

a) Medium of exchange.

b) Store of value.

c) Unit of account.

Bitcoins are certainly a medium of exchange. Somebody bought a Tesla with bitcoins. They are accepted in some stores. 

Bitcoins are certainly a store of value, albeit an unstable store of value. They started off in 2009 at a few US Dollars each. A few months ago they shot up to over USD 1200 each. Today they are down to USD 480 I see on Google search.

Are bitcoins a unit of account? I know they are accepted as such in Germany for the purpose of making bitcoin transactions taxable, but it is specifically then immediately stated in Germany that bitcoins are far from being a currency or even e-money the same as the pound or dollar or euro. They are not generally accepted as a unit of account. Financial reports are not widely prepared in bitcoins. 

Thus, bitcoins generally only fulfil two of the three functions of money, namely medium of exchange and store of value. Bitcoins are thus not money or monetary items. 

However, in 2013 a federal judge in the US stated they are the same as money. That still does not mean that they are widely being used as a unit of account with companies doing their books in terms of bitcoins. 

It is certainly a fact that bitcoins are generally described as bitcoin money, a currency, virtual currency, digital currency, virtual money or cryptocurrency. There is no doubt about that. These are the popular terms in the news, on the internet, in research papers, etc. However, bitcoins are not generally used as a unit of account. Thus they are not money or a monetary item or a local currency in terms of the economic definition of money or a monetary item.

Bitcoins are variable real value non-monetary items. The US IRS ruled that they are properties. They are similar to (not the same as) gold or silver coins, stamps or any other variable real value non-monetary item being used as a medium of exchange and store of value. Cigarettes are often used as a medium and exchange and store of value (over the very short term) in prisons. 

Bloomberg's report regarding the People's Bank of China: "The central bank will keep watching risks from Bitcoin, which is fundamentally not a currency but an investment target, Sheng Songcheng, head of the monetary authority’s statistics department, told reporters in Beijing on Jan. 15."


Nicolaas Smith 

Copyright (c) 2005-2014 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.

Tuesday, 1 April 2014

Capital Maintenance feedback summary by the IASB

Purpose of paper 

1. This paper summarises the feedback received on: 

(a) the measurement section of the Discussion Paper A Review of the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting. 

(b) Capital Maintenance, discussed in paragraphs 9.45–9.54 of the Discussion Paper. 

2. This paper provides a high level summary of the comments received. 

Where appropriate, we will provide more detailed breakdown of the comments for future meetings. 

Capital Maintenance

Background

58. The Discussion Paper stated that the IASB plans to include the existing descriptions and the discussion of capital maintenance concepts in the revised Conceptual Framework largely unchanged until such time as a new or revised Standard on accounting for high inflation indicates a need for change.

Summary of feedback

59. Most respondents either agreed with this approach or did not comment on it. Those who explicitly agreed with the approach stated that they had encountered few problems either with the capital maintenance concepts in the existing Conceptual Framework or with high inflation. Consequently, they argued that revising or updating the capital maintenance concepts in the Conceptual Framework should not be a priority.

60. A few respondents broadly agreed with the suggested approach to capital maintenance but suggested some changes to the existing guidance including:

(a) stating in the Conceptual Framework a preference for one of the concepts
of capital maintenance;

(b) removing reference to the physical capital maintenance concept because it
is not used in IFRS;

(c) shortening and focusing the discussion of capital maintenance;

(d) removing all discussion of capital maintenance because it was viewed as
irrelevant to most entities.

61. Some respondents disagreed with the suggested approach. They argued that the concept of capital maintenance is of fundamental importance to financial reporting.

"…the Conceptual Framework should articulate an ideal concept of capital maintenance and its relationship to the ideal measurement base. Accordingly, we do not support the proposal that leaves the existing descriptions and discussion of this issue largely unchanged until such time as any project on accounting for high inflation indicates a need for change.

We think this approach suggests a lack of understanding about the fundamental role a capital maintenance concept has within the accounting framework. 

We also consider that our current difficulties with profit measurement and OCI, which have issues of capital maintenance at their root clearly indicate a pressing need to resolve these issues."

CPA Australia and The Institute of Chartered Accountants Australia

62. A few respondents also noted that many jurisdictions are affected by high inflation. Consequently, the IASB should consider capital maintenance concepts when revising the Conceptual Framework. 

One respondent argued for greater use of capital maintenance as defined in terms of units of constant purchasing power.

63. A few respondents expressed the view that the IASB’s suggested approach to capital maintenance confuses two concepts:

(a) capital maintenance; and

(b) the measurement unit (nominal vs constant purchasing power), which is the subject of IAS 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies


IASB Agenda ref 10G 

Copyright (c) 2014 IFRS Foundation


ECB introduces the Real Euro

The European Central Bank today introduces Real Euros for the first time in countries in the European Monetary Union. Real Euros are new Euro notes with an embedded chip that reduces the nominal value of the notes in terms of inflation. During deflation the nominal values appearing on the notes will automatically increase in line with deflation.

This is a way to stabilize the Euro monetary economy in the European Monetary Union. It does away with the real effect of inflation and deflation in the EMU.

For example, during inflation of 2% per annum, the nominal value appearing on a new 100 Real Euro note automatically decreases to 98 Euros.

During deflation of 2% per annum the nominal value appearing on a 100 Real Euro note automatically increases to 102 Euros.

The President of the ECB, Mario Draghi, states that this will keep the value of the Euro money supply stable in real terms in the EMU.

He says that all nominal Euros can be exchanged at banks in Europe as from today for Real Euros.

Economists warn that this will make the effect of deflation even worse in the EMU. People will actually see their money increase in real value and will hang on to the notes even longer (see Japan during deflation) before spending them thus worsening the economy.

On the other hand this will stimulate spending during inflation since people will spend their money sooner - before the Real Euros lose more real value in front of their eyes.

Copyright (c) 2014  Primeiro de Abril All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.

Sunday, 30 March 2014

Difference between monetary values and monetary items

All economic/accounting/financial values expressed in terms of the monetary unit of account - whether they refer to non-monetary or monetary items - are stated as monetary values: the unit of account is a monetary unit of account.

Definition: Monetary items constitute the money supply. 

When an item is part of a country´s money supply, then it is a monetary item. It is expressed as a monetary value since it is expressed in terms of the monetary unit of account.

All non-monetary items - variable and constant real value non-monetary items - expressed in terms of the monetary unit of account are stated as monetary values, but they are not monetary items.

All monetary items are monetary values but not all monetary values are monetary items.

Nicolaas Smith Copyright (c) 2005-2014 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.

Thursday, 27 March 2014

Daily CPI formula used by France

The formula for calculating the French and Eurozone Daily CPIs is available HERE.

The following Daily CPI´s have been added to the Daily CPI / Monetized Daily Indexed Unit of Account list on the right hand side of this blog: 

Eurozone Daily CPI

French Daily CPI 

Mexican Monetized Daily Indexed Unit of Account

Nicolaas Smith Copyright (c) 2005-2014 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.

Tuesday, 25 March 2014

Argentinian and Uruguayan Daily CPIs

The Argentinian Daily CPI and the Uruguayan Daily CPI are new additions to the Daily CPI / Daily Monetized Unit of Account links on the right hand side of this blog.

The Daily CPI links now include:

1. Chile

2. Colombia

3. Iceland

4. Serbia

5. Turkey

6. UK

7. Uruguay

8. US

9. US unofficial Daily CPI

10. Other unofficial Daily CPIs

The above official Daily CPIs and all others not yet linked on this blog are used in these countries to value/price their specific government inflation-indexed bonds on a DAILY basis in the global USD 3 trillion (2014) market for these sovereign bonds.

Countries that calculate their Daily CPIs in the form of a Daily Monetized Unit of Account and express them in terms of either 1 or 100 units of local currency at the base date, use these DMUAs also to value/price other items besides their government inflation-indexed bonds in their economies. This is of great advantage in these specific DMUA economies. 

Chile inflation-index a number of monetary items and non-monetary items in their economy on a DAILY basis besides their sovereign inflation-indexed bonds. So much so that they inflation-adjust more than 25% of their money supply on a DAILY basis. There is thus NO EFFECT of inflation in 25% of Chile´s money supply. If they were to increase that to 100% of their money supply they would have NO EFFECT of inflation in 100% if their money supply at whatever rate of low, high or hyperinflation and deflation.

Colombia use their Real Value Unit DMUA to inflation-index all mortgage bonds in the country on a DAILY basis. 

Uruguay use their Unidad Indexada to inflation-adjust some monetary items besides their sovereign inflation-indexed bonds on a DAILY basis.

Nicolaas Smith 

Copyright (c) 2005-2014 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.

Friday, 14 March 2014

Daily indexing will stop your tears forever, Argentina

The Argentinian Accounting Federation sent a proposal to the IASB in 2010 regarding financial reporting in high inflationary economies (available in IFRS 'X'). I amended their proposal in 2012 with IFRS 'X' CAPITAL MAINTENANCE IN UNITS OF CONSTANT PURCHASING POWER. I suggested capital maintenance in units of constant purchasing power in terms of a DAILY INDEX similar to what stabilized the Brazilian economy during high and hyperinflation from 1964 to 1994. Brazilian accountants called it ´correcção monetária`.

My amendment was ignored by both the Argentinian Accounting Federation and the IASB. The IASB at one stage even wanted to throw my amendments in the rubbish bin. Maybe that is where IFRS ´X´is now at the IASB - despite Hans Hoogervorst´s assurances to the contrary.

When I first read, a year or two ago, that the Argentinian government was faking inflation, I knew that they would land up in an economic disaster. 

Now we have this: 

Soaring Prices Fuel Frustrations Among Weary Argentines

IFRS 'X' is still valid today. It will always be valid while there is inflation and deflation. DAILY INDEXING would give Argentina economic stability over a very short period of time. The IASB could REQUIRE it in IAS 29. The Board could encourage it immediately while correcting IAS 29 in a very short time.

Unfortunately the IASB is still in love with historical cost accounting even during high inflation. "The cheque amount is what represents cost" is currently still very forcefully stated by a top IASB member in public when discussing accounting during high inflation which could reach up to 25% per annum. What a joke. 

Watch Argentina and Venezuela to see historical cost accountants destroying two big economies - aided and abetted by the IASB.


Nicolaas Smith 

Copyright (c) 2005-2014 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.

Thursday, 27 February 2014

Ukraine and Venezuela can achieve economic stability in the very short run with help from the IASB


The implementation of capital maintenance in units of constant purchasing power in terms of a DAILY index which follows all - at least DAILY - changes in the general price level would GUARANTEE stability in the REAL VALUE  (constant purchasing power) of 

salaries

wages

rents

taxes

trade debtors

trade creditors

all non-monetary payables

all non-monetary receivables

all items in the income statement

all profits

all losses

issued share capital

retained earnings 

capital reserves 

all other items in shareholders´equity

provisions 

etc. 

at any level of high or hyperinflation in Ukraine and Venezuela in the very short run. This requires the calculation and accounting of net monetary losses and gains.

This would stabilize the constant real value non-monetary economies in Ukraine and Venezuela in the very short run.

This was done very successfully in Brazil from 1964 to 1994 with "correcção monetária" or DAILY indexing which is CMUCPP in terms of a DAILY INDEX.


Extending DAILY INDEXING or "correcção monetária" or CMUCPP in terms of a DAILY INDEX to include the daily inflation-adjustment of all monetary items with all cash in the banking system (obviously not 100% possible) and it would GUARANTEE the stability of the REAL VALUE of these inflation-indexed monetary items at all levels of high and hyperinflation in Ukraine and Venezuela in the very short run. There would still be high or hyperinflation in Ukraine and Venezuela but there would be no EFFECT OF high or hyperinflation just like the effect of low and high inflation is eliminated in the global USD 3 trillion in government capital inflation-indexed bonds (e.g. TIPS) currently inflation-adjusted DAILY during low and high inflation in terms of the DAILY CPI in a great number of countries in the world economy.

Chile already inflation-indexes 25% + of all monetary items in its economy on a DAILY basis during low inflation since 2012. Chile started indexing in 1967 in its economy. They adopted DAILY INDEXING since 1990.

Robert Shiller decried governments´ lack of interest in DAILY INDEXING years ago. 

The IASB can achieve that today in a very short time by requiring DAILY INDEXING in IAS 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies by means of the short turn-around process for correcting an issued IFRS.

Venezuela is implementing IAS 29 since 2009. Ukraine is or would soon be in high inflation. IAS 29 in terms of the monthly published CPI does NOT achieve the above monetary and non-monetary stability as very well proven during the 6 years IAS 29 was implemented at the end of Zimbabwe´s hyperinflation.

Nothing stops the IASB from requiring DAILY INDEXING in IAS 29 and nothing stops the IASB from encouraging it immediately and changing IAS 29 to require it over the very short term.

The above would also stabilize the foreign currency exchange rates of Ukraine and Venezuela with the rest of the world economy - obviously only with all else being equal. DAILY INDEXING would always guarantee internal economic stability no matter what happens with the external exchange rate. Internal economic stability generally always has a stabilizing effect on the external exchange rate - all else being equal.

What a difference DAILY INDEXING of all monetary items and all constant real value non-monetary items would make in Ukraine and Venezuela. Ask Robert Shiller and Gustavo Franco. Franco was one of the architects of the Real Plan in Brazil in 1994.

All of the above also hold true for Argentina and all other countries in high and hyperinflation. The constant purchasing power of constant real value non-monetary items and inflation-indexed monetary items is not only to be maintained constant in real value with the onset of high inflation or only during hyperinflation. CMUCPP in terms of a DAILY INDEX is required at all levels of inflation and deflation: during low inflation and deflation too.

Nicolaas Smith 

Copyright (c) 2014 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.

Wednesday, 19 February 2014

Scotland can unofficially dollarize using the Pound - without London´s consent

According to Forbes:

"In an almost unheard of outbreak of unanimity, the three major political parties in London – the Conservatives, Labor, and the Liberal Democrats – last week concurred in saying that the U.K. would not allow an independent Scotland to use the pound."

Scotland - or any country in the world, for that matter - can unilaterally adopt the British Pound, or any other country´s currency, as its currency. It is called unofficial dollarization. 

No-one can stop a country from using another country´s currency. Many small economies (island-state economies) are unofficially dollarized using the US Dollar as the national currency.

Zimbabwe uses the British Pound as one of the several currencies it uses in its multi-currency dollarization of its economy.

The fact that the Zimbabwean population refused to accept the Zimbabwean Dollar as payment towards November 2008, means that Zimbabwe dollarized spontaneously. The people decided: not the government. 

When Zimbabwe then officially withdrew the Zimbabwean Dollar from circulation as from 20 November 2008, it then unofficially dollarized the Zimbabwean economy allowing the official use of the US Dollar, British Pound, SA Rand, Euro and Botswana Pula. 

Zimbabwe did not ask permission from the US, UK, EU, SA or Botswana. The Zimbabwean government just decided by themselves to follow the Zimbabwean population´s lead.

Nicolaas Smith Copyright (c) 2005-2014 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.

Monday, 10 February 2014

Selection of the capital maintenance concept is a choice that is available within the Conceptual Framework

“Par. 14 . The selection of the capital maintenance concept is a choice that is available within the Conceptual Framework that provides a fundamental basis of preparation of financial statements. Paragraph 4.58 of the Conceptual Framework states that “the selection of the appropriate concept of capital by an entity should be based on the needs of the users of its financial statements”. Accordingly, those who support this view argue that the entity is permitted to use the financial capital maintenance concept defined in constant purchasing power units if this concept, among the alternative concepts described in the Conceptual Framework, provides the most useful information to users.

Par. 15. Having made a choice of using the financial capital maintenance concept in constant purchasing power units, the entity would develop accounting policies by referring to an IFRS that addresses a transaction, other event or condition analysed in accordance with paragraph 10 of IAS 8. The entity would need to adapt each IFRS for the use under that capital maintenance concept.”

STAFF PAPER Agenda ref 12, 10–11 September 2013 IFRS Interpretations Committee Meeting
Project IAS 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies
Paper topic Applicability of the concept of financial capital maintenance defined in constant purchasing power units.                          

I fully support the above view. 

Nicolaas Smith

Friday, 7 February 2014

DAILY GENERAL PRICE LEVEL

DAILY GENERAL PRICE LEVEL

price index is a normalized average of prices for goods and services within an economy over a given period of time. The best known is the Consumer Price Index (CPI).

The general price level is a hypothetical measure of overall prices of goods and services in an economy over time, normalized relative to some base set. The general price level is approximated with the Daily Consumer Price Index (Daily CPI)

During low inflation consumer goods and most other prices, including salaries, wages, rents, transport fees, government-administered prices, electricity prices, water, gas, etc., are generally updated once a year in terms of the change in annual inflation. However, the general price level, in fact, changes at least DAILY. This only becomes evident during LOW inflation when a product is actually priced in terms of the CPI when it is bought and sold on a daily basis and thus has to be priced on a daily basis in terms of the DAILY CPI. This happens daily in the global US Dollar 3 Trillion government capital inflation-indexed bond market in many countries where these sovereign bonds have a different price every day in low and high inflation economies set in terms of the DAILY CPI. This is obviously also true for inflation-indexed bonds during high inflation, hyperinflation and deflation.

During hyperinflation consumer prices are generally updated daily, actually every time the parallel rate changes, in terms of the US Dollar black market rate. Everyone in a hyperinflationary economy knows for a fact that the general price level changes daily (or even more often) as consumer prices are adjusted daily, i.e., every time the US Dollar parallel rate changes. At levels of hyperinflation above 1000 percent per annum, everyone in the economy knows that the previous day´s price is meaningless the next day: it has to be updated at least daily in terms of the change in the black market rate. Everyone involved in business and money matters in a hyperinflationary economy with hyperinflation above 1000 percent per annum knows the general price level changes at least daily. 

All DAILY US Dollar parallel market rates around the world in high and hyperinflationary countries are proxies for the DAILY general price level in those countries as far as the updating of consumer, property and many other prices are concerned. This excludes consumer prices fixed by the government, for example, currently in Venezuela.

The general price level is indicated by a DAILY Non-Monetary Index that follows ALL changes in the general level of prices, normally at least DAILY changes.  It is represented by the Daily CPI during low inflation, high inflation, the initial stage of hyperinflation and deflation. 

The general price level is indicated by the DAILY US Dollar parallel rate as from the stage of hyperinflation when the Daily CPI falls too far behind the Daily USD parallel rate. The DAILY real (parallel or black market) foreign exchange rate is then used as a proxy for the general price level. The daily price level as represented by the DAILY US Dollar parallel rate can change more than once per day by a huge percentage during severe hyperinflation. See Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe, Hungary, Yugoslavia and Germany.

All countries that issue government capital inflation-indexed bonds already calculate a Daily CPI. These bonds trade DAILY. They are priced DAILY in terms of the DAILY CPI.

Here are links to some Daily CPIs which indicate the DAILY general price levels in the respective countries:

Chile - UF: Daily Unidad de Fomento Index. Not a Daily CPI, but a monetized daily indexed unit of account based on the CPI.





Turkey - Daily CPI (Click on Reference Indices under CPI Indexed Government Bonds)



More countries that issue daily inflation-indexed bonds and thus already calculate a Daily CPI to price these bonds daily are:


The constant purchasing power of capital and all other constant real value non-monetary items, e.g., salaries, wages, rent, taxes, trade debtors, trade creditors, all non-monetary payables, all non-monetary receivables, all profits and losses, all items in shareholders equity, etc. can only be maintained constant in real value in terms of a DAILY INDEX during low inflation, high inflation, hyperinflation and deflation.

Nicolaas Smith 

 Copyright (c) 2005-2014 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.