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Monday, 2 June 2014

Difference between local currency and foreign currency


Foreign currency
  
Foreign currency is always created in a foreign economy. Foreign currency is always a variable real value non-monetary item like, for example, property, plant, equipment, listed and unlisted shares, etc. A foreign currency with a floating exchange rate´s continuously changing daily value is determined in foreign currency markets. Foreign currency gains or losses are recorded in the financial reports under all accounting models including traditional Historical Cost Accounting. Foreign currency is traded daily on many foreign currency exchange markets. A foreign currency with a floating exchange rate has a continuously changing price or real value. A foreign currency with a floating exchange rate can increase and decrease in price daily (minute by minute). 

Local currency

Local currency is always fiat money created in the local economy. A local currency is always a monetary item with an assumed to be perfectly stable real value over time whereas a foreign currency is always a variable real value non-monetary item. However, a local currency´s daily changing real value is determined by the rate of inflation or deflation in the local economy as indicated by the Daily CPI during low inflation, high inflation and deflation and by the Daily US Dollar parallel rate during hyperinflation. Although a local currency is generally not stable in real value, it is assumed that the local currency is perfectly stable in real value over time for the purpose of being used as the "assumed-to-be" perfectly stable monetary unit of account in the local economy for accounting purposes under the Historical Cost and Current Cost Accounting models. Under the Capital Maintenance in Units of Constant Purchasing Power (CMUCPP) accounting model monetary items are generally inflation-adjusted on a daily basis and constant real value non-monetary items are measured daily in units of constant purchasing power generally in terms of the Daily CPI.

Local currency net monetary gains and losses as a result of inflation and deflation are not recorded in the financial reports under HCA and CCA during low inflation, high inflation and deflation. They are calculated and accounted under Capital Maintenance in Units of Constant Purchasing Power during hyperinflation as required under IAS 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies. During low inflation and deflation local currency is not traded in the local market because local currency is assumed to be perfectly stable in real value over time. Local currency´s real value is indicated by inflation and deflation. However, during high inflation and hyperinflation, local currency is traded in the local market. This market is called the parallel or black market as opposed to the normal foreign exchange market. 

Local currency´s real value is determined by all the underlying value systems in the local economy, e.g., good or bad national governance, a good or bad economy, good or bad monetary policies, a good or bad legal system, a good or bad health system, a good or bad educational system, a good or bad police force, etc, etc. The daily change in local currency´s real value is indicated by the daily change in the Daily CPI during low and high inflation and deflation and by the daily US Dollar parallel rate during hyperinflation.

The total of local currency held locally plus held outside the local economy (as foreign currency by other countries) make up the money supply.  Daily inflation-indexing the local money supply, i.e., all monetary items in the local economy, would eliminate only the effect of inflation or deflation in the local economy: it would leave local inflation or deflation intact. However, it would be as if there is no inflation or deflation in the local economy.

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