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Saturday, 8 November 2014

Measurement Bases under the IFRS Units of Constant Purchasing Power Paradigm

MEASUREMENT BASES

There are three economic items in the economy.

1. MONETARY ITEMS

Definition: Monetary items are all items in the money supply.

Examples: Money (local fiat currency, cash, bank notes, bank coins), capital amount of money loans, capital amount of bonds, capital amount of bunds, capital amount of bank deposits, capital amount of money and capital market instruments, etc.

MEASUREMENT BASIS

(a) Nominal Historical Cost 

i.e., in nominal monetary units only during current financial year for monetary items not inflation-indexed daily in terms of the Daily CPI. These items exist in terms of Historical Cost contracts still being used under the Units of Constant Purchasing Power paradigm.

(b) Daily Updated Historical Cost

for prior year monetary items in current year financial reports and all other historical monetary items not part of current year financial reports:  

always and everywhere updated till the current (today´s) real value in terms of all (at least daily) changes in the general price level - generally in terms of the Daily CPI. There is no such thing as a nominal historical cost monetary item except for current year monetary items that are not inflation-adjusted daily.

NON-MONETARY ITEMS

Definition: Non-monetary items are all items that are not monetary items. 

They are divided in two sub-groups:

2. VARIABLE REAL VALUE NON-MONETARY ITEMS

Definition: Variable items are non-monetary items with variable real values over time.

Examples: Property, plant, equipment, foreign exchange (foreign currencies), inventories, raw materials, work-in-progress, finished goods, listed and unlisted shares, trademarks, patents, bitcoins, etc

MEASUREMENT BASIS


Fair value always and everywhere updated at least daily till the current (today´s) real value. There is no such thing as a nominal historical variable real value non-monetary item.

3. CONSTANT REAL VALUE NON-MONETARY ITEMS

Definition: Constant items are non-monetary items with constant real values over time.

Examples: Salaries, wages, rent, bank charges, interest paid, interest received, interest payable, interest receivable, issued share capital, retained earnings, capital reserves, all other items in shareholders´equity, all items in the profit and loss account, all items in the comprehensive income statement, provisions, trade debtors, trade creditors, taxes payable, taxes receivable, all other non-monetary receivables, all other non-monetary payables, etc.

MEASUREMENT BASIS


Units of constant  purchasing power always and everywhere updated at least daily till the current (today´s) real value in terms of all (at least daily) changes in the general price level, generally in terms of the Daily CPI. There is no such thing as a nominal historical constant real value non-monetary item.

The Units of Constant Purchasing Power Measurement Basis: in terms of all - at least daily - changes in the general price level under all levels of inflation (low, high and hyperinflation) and deflation always and everywhere updated till the current (today´s) real value. In terms of the US Dollar daily parallel rate when the Daily CPI is not available during hyperinflation.

Summary

MEASUREMENT BASES

1. Units of constant  purchasing power*
2. Fair value*
3. Updated Historical Cost*
4. Nominal Historical Cost
  
*Always and everywhere updated in terms of all (at least daily) changes in the general price level - generally in terms of the Daily CPI - up to the current (today´s) real value under all levels of inflation (low, high and hyperinflation) and deflation. In terms of the US Dollar daily parallel rate when the Daily CPI is not available during hyperinflation.

The above measurement bases are used in general purpose accounting / financial reporting under the IFRS authorized UCPP paradigm, i.e., under Capital Maintenance in Units of Constant Purchasing Power in terms of the Daily CPI. 

General Price Level

The general price level (indicated by the Daily CPI) changes at least daily. It can change more than once a day during hyperinflation. The only place this is understood (not the Daily CPI part) by every adult member (as well as all child street vendors) of the general public, is in a hyperinflationary economy. Consequently, all items, except current year monetary items (in "live" bank accounts, nominal HC monetary item contracts, etc.) have to be updated daily in terms of all (at least daily) changes in the general price level, updated to the current (today´s) real value (in terms of today´s Daily CPI value). 

Real value of all historical values change at least daily

The real value of all historical (for example, all yesterday´s) economic values expressed in terms of a monetary unit of measure (i.e., the real value of all historical items), generally change in terms of all (at least daily) changes in the general price level. Simply stated: the real value of all historical (yesterday´s) items changes every day. 

The net monetary gain or loss in nominal monetary items - as qualified above - is calculated and accounted only during the current financial period only under IFRS authorized Capital Maintenance in Units of Constant Purchasing Power, i.e., only under the IFRS authorized Units of Constant Purchasing Power paradigm.

UCPP paradigm authorized in IFRS 25 years ago

Capital Maintenance in Units of Constant Purchasing Power was authorized in IFRS in the original Framework (1989), Par. 104 (a) which stated: "Financial capital maintenance can be measured in either nominal monetary units or units of constant purchasing power".  This paragraph appears unaltered in the current Conceptual Framework (2010), Par. 4.59 (a). 

Irresponsible IASB

CMUCPP is required in IFRS in IAS 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies. The guidance for CMUCPP given in IAS 29 unfortunately does not result in the achievement of actual CMUCPP in a hyperinflationary economy as a result of the use of the monthly published CPI. Only the use of the Daily CPI can result in actual CMUCPP. The IASB very irresponsibly refuses to change IAS 29 to require the use of the Daily CPI because the IASB refuses to take the time to get to understand the economy-wide stabilizing effect of daily indexing in terms of the Daily CPI.

The IASB very irresponsibly also refuses to deal with the Units of Constant Purchasing Power measurement basis as it has always been used under HCA in its current discussions regarding Measurement in the Conceptual Framework although all HC entities (almost all entities) used it over the last 100 years, all HC entities (almost all entities) use it today and all HC entities (almost all entities) will use it in the future. This is a very good example of the fact that all members of the current IASB and IASB staff have very little knowledge and almost no understanding of the effect of Capital Maintenance in Units of Constant Purchasing Power in terms of the Daily CPI authorized in IFRS 25 years ago. This continues to result in the issuance of low quality IFRSs by a very stubborn and boldly disrespectful IASB, mainly almost completely ignorant of the economic effects of financial capital maintenance in units of constant purchasing power in terms of the Daily CPI. 

See also 

Historical Cost Accounting versus Capital Maintenance in Units of Constant Purchasing Power™

Three measurement bases in IFRS



Nicolaas Smith 

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