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Wednesday, 9 November 2016

Capital would be maintained constant during deflation under CMUCPP

Contrary to how the inflation-conditioned mind would normally think, capital would be maintained constant under capital maintenance in units of constant purchasing power in terms of the Daily CPI during deflation.

In simple terms: capital would be decreased in nominal value but maintained constant in real value during deflation.  

It would thus promote financial and economic stability - during deflation.

Nicolaas Smith Copyright (c) 2005-2016 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.

Tuesday, 8 November 2016

Equity Equal to Net Assets Capital Maintenance Fallacy

Capital is never maintained by entities which prepare their financial statements on the nominal Historical Cost basis when it is taken into account that sustainable zero inflation has never been achieved and will most likely never be achieved.

All audit reports should start with the following standard statement:

"We confirm that the constant purchasing power (real value) of the entity's capital was not maintained during the last financial period as in its entire existence to date under the nominal Historical Cost basis because 

(1) the stable measuring unit assumption was implemented resulting in constant real value non-monetary items (e.g., shareholders´ equity, taxes, debtors, creditors, profits, losses, salaries, wages, etc.)  not being maintained in real value and 

(2) no account was taken of changes in the inflation/deflation rate with net monetary gains and losses not accounted for in the preparation of the financial reports.

The financial statements balance in nominal value but not in real value."

Current shareholders, creditors, employees, the authorities, prospective investors and all stakeholders should be made fully aware of the fact that it is impossible for the entity to maintain its capital under the Historical Cost basis.

It is obvious that Historical Cost Accounting´s fundamental mistake - the stable measuring unit assumption - can be used in the Equity Equal to Net Assets Capital Maintenance Fallacy proof.


‘It is essential to the credibility of financial reporting to recognize that the recovery of the real cost of investment is not earnings — that there can be no earnings unless and until the purchasing power of capital is maintained.


US FASB Financial Accounting Standard 33 (1979) Paragraph 24

[There is nothing like the above in IFRS. The Americans often seem to be just that little bit better. It is a good thing they have not adopted IFRS as is. :-) ]

The accounting profession generally argues that the fact that it is impossible to maintain capital in nominal terms on the Historical Cost basis under non-zero inflationary conditions is not important since capital is always equal to net assets.

It is mathematically correct that capital is always equal to net assets under the nominal Historical Cost basis - in nominal monetary units, that is all. However, that is not equal to capital maintenance (see FAS 33 above) as the profession - excluding the US contingent - fraudulently implies.

Maintaining the constant purchasing power (real value) of capital always was, is and will always be impossible during non-zero inflationary conditions under the nominal Historical Cost basis.

Capital maintenance is impossible under the Historical Cost basis. Period. State it openly in the financial statements and audit report.

The statement in the IFRS Conceptual Framework that "Financial capital maintenance can be measured in nominal monetary units" is thus completely false, fake, misleading and fraudulent.

Every past, present and future member of the IASB knows that generally no balance sheet prepared under the nominal Historical Cost basis has ever balanced, balances or ever will balance in real value during non-zero inflationary conditions.

Fortunately the IFRS Conceptual Framework also authorizes: "Financial capital maintenance can be measured in units of constant purchasing power".

However, it only works when it is done in terms of the Daily CPI. Using the monthly CPI does not result in capital maintenance since it has to be done in terms of all changes in the general price level. The price level does not change monthly as it appears as a result of the original (historical) monthly publication of the CPI figures. It changes daily in all economies. People pay accounts on every day of the month. The general price level can - and often does - change more than once a day in hyperinflationary economies.

Government inflation-indexed bonds are updated daily in terms of the Daily CPI because they trade daily on the bond markets. They need updated prices daily - not monthly. People trade daily, not monthly. The general price level changes at least daily. Daily CPI figures are thus generally available. (See the examples on the right margin of this site).

Nicolaas Smith Copyright (c) 2005-2016 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.



Thursday, 1 September 2016

Currency is either a monetary or non-monetary item

Example: 

US Dollar as a monetary item

The US Dollar is a monetary item only inside the US economy. Its nominal price is the nominal interest rate initially set by the Federal Reserve Bank. Its real price inside the US economy is its real interest rate which is the nominal interest rate charged in a contract or transaction minus the daily changing rate of inflation or deflation as indicated by the US Daily Consumer Price Index.US - Daily Reference CPI-Us Official future United States Daily CPI Sept 2016

US Dollar as a non-monetary item

The US Dollar is generally a variable real value non-monetary item in the hands of entities outside the US economy. US Dollars outside the US economy are non-monetary items in all other non-US economies where they are held. Outside the US economy the US Dollar´s non-monetary price (real value) is mainly determined nano-second by nano-second in the global 24-hour-per-day, 5-working-day-a-week foreign exchange market in terms of all other currencies as well as in many other street markets, etc. where it is traded on the black market also called the parallel market at the daily changing parallel rate or black market rate. The parallel/black market rate can change on Saturdays and Sundays. That is not the case in the official foreign exchange market which is closed on Saturday and Sunday. 


Nicolaas Smith Copyright (c) 2005-2016 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.

Wednesday, 31 August 2016

Negative rates only negative under Historical Cost paradigm

Negative interest rates are only negative under the nominal Historical Cost Accounting paradigm.

The effect of negative interest rates is always positive under the Units of Constant Purchasing Power in terms of the Daily CPI paradigm during deflation.


Nicolaas Smith Copyright (c) 2005-2016 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.

Sunday, 31 July 2016

An inconvenient accounting truth


No balance sheet has ever balanced in real value under Historical Cost Accounting and no balance sheet ever will.

Under IFRS and US GAAP authorised Capital Maintenance in Units of Constant Purchasing Power in terms of the Daily CPI the constant purchasing power of capital is automatically maintained constant in real value in all entities that at least break even in real value at all levels of inflation, hyperinflation and deflation, ceteris paribus.


Nicolaas Smith Copyright (c) 2005-2016 Nicolaas J Smith. All rights reserved. No reproduction without permission.