(a) a Daily Consumer Price Index or monetized daily indexed unit of account, e.g. the Unidad de Fomento in Chile, during low inflation, high inflation and deflation and
b) in terms of a relatively stable foreign currency parallel rate (normally the US Dollar daily parallel rate) or a Brazilian-style Unidade Real de Valor daily index rate during hyperinflation. Hyperinflation is defined in IAS 29 as cumulative inflation being equal to or approaching 100 per cent over three years, i.e. 26 per cent annual inflation for three years in a row.
Monetary items are units of money held and items with an underlying monetary nature which are substitutes for units of money held.
Examples of units of money held are bank notes and coins of the fiat currency created within an economy by means of fractional reserve banking. Examples of items with an underlying monetary nature which are substitutes of money held include the capital amount of: bank loans, bank savings, credit card loans, car loans, home loans, student loans, consumer loans, commercial and government bonds, Treasury Bills, all capital and money market investments, notes payable, notes receivable, etc. when these items are not in the form of money held.
Historic and current period monetary items are required to be inflation-adjusted on a daily basis. When they are not inflation-adjusted on a daily basis during the current financial period then the net monetary loss or gain as defined in IAS 29 is required to be calculated and accounted.
Variable real value non-monetary items
A variable real value non-monetary item is a non-monetary item with a variable real value over time.
Examples include quoted and unquoted shares, property, plant, equipment, inventory, intellectual property, goodwill, foreign exchange, finished goods, raw material, etc.
Current period variable real value non-monetary items are required to be measured on a daily basis in terms of IFRS excluding the stable measuring unit assumption and the cost model in the valuation of property, plant, equipment and investment property after recognition. When they are not valued on a daily basis, then they as well as historic variable real value non-monetary items are required to be updated daily in terms of a daily rate as indicated above. Current period impairment losses in variable real value non-monetary items are required to be treated in terms of IFRS. They are constant real value non-monetary items once they are accounted. All accounted losses and profits are constant real value non-monetary items.
Constant real value non-monetary items
A constant real value non-monetary is a non-monetary item with a constant real value over time whose value within an entity is not generally determined in a market on a daily basis.
Examples include pensions, salaries, wages, rentals, all other income statement items, issued share capital, share premium accounts, share discount accounts, retained earnings, retained losses, capital reserves, revaluation reserves, all accounted profits and losses, all other items in shareholders´ equity, trade debtors, trade creditors, dividends payable, dividends receivable, deferred tax assets, deferred tax liabilities, all taxes payable, all taxes receivable, all other non-monetary payables, all other non-monetary receivables, provisions, etc.
Historic and current period constant real value non-monetary items are always and everywhere required to be measured in units of constant purchasing power in terms of a daily rate as indicated above.
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